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Thread: Understanding particles in physics.

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    Bronze Member Brett Nortje's Avatar
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    Question Understanding particles in physics.

    Previously, on other sites, i have mastered my new understanding of electrons and photons. Electrons are essential for bonding and energy, and photons are essential for 'closed circuit' regenerating things like light. okay, i cannot really remember my new definition of photons, as i didn't really like what i found, but, it is now time to focus on something else.

    Chemistry is the study of things that are in the elemental table and combinations of particles studied in physics, so, physics will set you up for chemistry, but chemistry might only give you a very basic understanding of physics - chemistry big, physics small. there is much less to learn in physics than chemistry too.

    Let us take a look at quarks? i have no idea where to start, so i will start with a quote;

    Quote Originally Posted by http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_particles
    Fermions are one of the two fundamental classes of particles, the other being bosons. Fermion particles are described by Fermi–Dirac statistics and have quantum numbers described by the Pauli exclusion principle. They include the quarks and leptons, as well as any composite particles consisting of an odd number of these, such as all baryons and many atoms and nuclei.

    Fermions have half-integer spin; for all known elementary fermions this is 1⁄2. All known fermions are also Dirac fermions; that is, each known fermion has its own distinct antiparticle. It is not known whether the neutrino is a Dirac fermion or a Majorana fermion.[3] Fermions are the basic building blocks of all matter. They are classified according to whether they interact via the color force or not. In the Standard Model, there are 12 types of elementary fermions: six quarks and six leptons.
    Quote Originally Posted by http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_particles
    Quarks are the fundamental constituents of hadrons and interact via the strong interaction. Quarks are the only known carriers of fractional charge, but because they combine in groups of three (baryons) or in groups of two with antiquarks (mesons), only integer charge is observed in nature. Their respective antiparticles are the antiquarks which are identical except for the fact that they carry the opposite electric charge (for example the up quark carries charge +2⁄3, while the up antiquark carries charge −2⁄3), color charge, and baryon number. There are six flavors of quarks; the three positively charged quarks are called up-type quarks and the three negatively charged quarks are called down-type quarks.
    So, fermions are broken down into quarks and leptons. these two types of particle are there for the sake of motion and energy, as, we all know it takes energy to move, and energy eventually results in movement. this is like pulling a elastic back, there is now created energy from you to the band, and then you release your energy holding it back to fire it across the room. this is where you exert energy to move it, then you release it's own energy to move it.

    I have already covered the formula for finding the weights ans spins of these things on another forum, not that it really matters if you learn them like a doctor learns things out their textbooks - there is a lot of content in there!

    Quote Originally Posted by http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_particles
    Leptons do not interact via the strong interaction. Their respective antiparticles are the antileptons which are identical except for the fact that they carry the opposite electric charge and lepton number. The antiparticle of the electron is the antielectron, which is nearly always called positron for historical reasons. There are six leptons in total; the three charged leptons are called electron-like leptons, while the neutral leptons are called neutrinos. Neutrinos are known to oscillate, so that neutrinos of definite flavour do not have definite mass, rather they exist in a superposition of mass eigenstates. The hypothetical heavy right-handed neutrino, called a sterile neutrino, has been left off the list.
    It is apparent that energy used to charge the electron comes from the quarks, as the electrons have a negative charge number, meaning they are basically ruled out of motion or anything else - they are useless without the quarks. leptons are important because the electron dictates how heavy and dense something is, as, with my formulas, you will find that the more electron orbital clouds it has, the more this is true. it is true that there is no strong interaction between leptons, because the quarks do all the work. this means that electrons bond things together by being 'lazy' and hauling things 'knitted closed,' like a cat dragging a rug under them when you are trying to take them to the vet!
    !! Going to my destruction !!

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    Diamond Member adrianh's Avatar
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    You should move this to "The Friday Funnies"
    How easily someone is offended is directly proportional to how stupid they are.
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    Diamond Member HR Solutions's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by adrianh View Post
    You should move this to "The Friday Funnies"

    LOL ......:

    Nice one adrian .... u just made my day




    ONE thing that I do agree with him is his sig.
    !! Going to my destruction !!
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    Site Caretaker Dave A's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Brett Nortje View Post
    this means that electrons bond things together by being 'lazy' and hauling things 'knitted closed,' like a cat dragging a rug under them when you are trying to take them to the vet!
    I have never heard one of the characteristics of electrons described this way, but it is kinda apt - especially if the rug is being drawn to them by static charge rather than the use of their claws
    The trouble with opportunity is it normally comes dressed up as work.

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    Bronze Member Brett Nortje's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Dave A View Post
    I have never heard one of the characteristics of electrons described this way, but it is kinda apt - especially if the rug is being drawn to them by static charge rather than the use of their claws
    It is supposed to allow seventh graders to have a shot at it now, so they don't fall later, of course.
    !! Going to my destruction !!

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    Diamond Member adrianh's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Brett Nortje View Post
    It is supposed to allow seventh graders to have a shot at it now, so they don't fall later, of course.
    ...a shot at what?
    How easily someone is offended is directly proportional to how stupid they are.
    ~GS Elevator

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    Bronze Member Brett Nortje's Avatar
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    Bosons.

    Bosons are one of the two fundamental classes of particles, the other being fermions. Bosons are characterized by Bose–Einstein statistics and all have integer spins. Bosons may be either elementary, like photons and gluons, or composite, like mesons.

    The fundamental forces of nature are mediated by gauge bosons, and mass is believed to be created by the Higgs Field. According to the Standard Model the elementary bosons are:
    Photon, w boson, z boson, gluon, Higgs boson and graviton. i think the last two do not fit into my idea of what goes on in the world, so, let me first try to nullify or get rid of them before we continue. the Higgs is supposed to give things mass, but, so is the graviton. there is no mass outside of the electron's orbital clouds and they make things denser and heavier and sometimes 'harder.' this means these things do not matter. as for photons, i have covered them on online debate network.

    So, the w boson, the z boson and the gluon;

    Quote Originally Posted by http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boson
    In quantum mechanics, a boson (/ˈboʊsɒn/,[1] /ˈboʊzɒn/[2]) is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics. Bosons make up one of the two classes of particles, the other being fermions.[3] The name boson was coined by Paul Dirac[4] to commemorate the contribution of the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose[5][6] in developing, with Einstein, Bose–Einstein statistics—which theorizes the characteristics of elementary particles.[7] Examples of bosons include fundamental particles such as photons, gluons, and W and Z bosons (the four force-carrying gauge bosons of the Standard Model), the Higgs boson, and the still-theoretical graviton of quantum gravity; composite particles (e.g. mesons and stable nuclei of even mass number such as deuterium (with one proton and one neutron, mass number = 2), helium-4, or lead-208[Note 1]); and some quasiparticles (e.g. Cooper pairs, plasmons, and phonons).[8]:130

    An important characteristic of bosons is that their statistics do not restrict the number of them that occupy the same quantum state. This property is exemplified by helium-4 when it is cooled to become a superfluid.[9] Unlike bosons, two fermions cannot occupy the same quantum space. Whereas the elementary particles that make up matter (i.e. leptons and quarks) are fermions, the elementary bosons are force carriers that function as the 'glue' holding matter together.[10] This property holds for all particles with integer spin (s = 0, 1, 2 etc.) as a consequence of the spin–statistics theorem.
    So, they can occupy the same place? this means they must merge, but, there must be a limit to the amount of times it can run over? i would say that they are like a puddle of water, where it occupies the same space, but the space grows bigger, yes? they are force carrying particles, like quarks, and have a zero charge as they are just inert mass or 'stuff waiting to be used.'

    Gluons are like putty, they will hold together other elements, and are like the 'bonds' between elements and stuff, but, are much smaller and cannot exist without elements or atoms, but must exist when atoms combine, like the bosons will bind to other particles like quarks and electrons - the quarks give the power, the electron's give the 'focus,' objective or goals and the bosons give it 'substance' as to what it will do, maybe the elements will be included here in? all the while the gluons will hold the things together, like a skeleton.
    !! Going to my destruction !!

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    Bronze Member Brett Nortje's Avatar
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    More on leptons.

    Quote Originally Posted by http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_neutrino
    The electron neutrino (νe) is a subatomic lepton elementary particle which has no net electric charge. Together with the electron it forms the first generation of leptons, hence its name electron neutrino. It was first hypothesized by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930, to account for missing momentum and missing energy in beta decay, and was discovered in 1956 by a team led by Clyde Cowan and Frederick Reines (see Cowan–Reines neutrino experiment).[1]
    Quote Originally Posted by http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_neutrino
    Like all particles, the electron neutrino has a corresponding antiparticle, the electron antineutrino (ν
    e), which differs only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign. The process of beta decay produces both beta particles and electron antineutrinos. Wolfgang Pauli proposed the existence of these particles, in 1930, to ensure that beta decay conserved energy (the electrons in beta decay have a continuum of energies) and momentum (the momentum of the electron and recoil nucleus – in beta decay – do not add up to zero).
    So, the neutrino sucks up energy for itself, like a fire would burn wood for itself. this means of course that it is 'active' in some way, as it is doing something, even though it is something bad.

    Quote Originally Posted by http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muon
    The muon (/ˈmjuːɒn/; from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with unitary negative electric charge of −1 and a spin of 1⁄2, but with a much greater mass (105.7 MeV/c2). It is classified as a lepton, together with the electron (mass 0.511 MeV/c2), the tau (mass 1777.8 MeV/c2), and the three neutrinos. As is the case with other leptons, the muon is not believed to have any sub-structure; namely, it is not thought to be composed of any simpler particles.

    The muon is an unstable subatomic particle with a mean lifetime of 2.2 µs. Among all known unstable subatomic particles, only the neutron and some atomic nuclei have a longer decay lifetime; others decay significantly faster. The decay of the muon (as well as of the neutron, the longest-lived unstable baryon), is mediated by the weak interaction exclusively. Muon decay always produces at least three particles, which must include an electron of the same charge as the muon and two neutrinos of different types.

    Like all elementary particles, the muon has a corresponding antiparticle of opposite charge (+1) but equal mass and spin: the antimuon (also called a positive muon). Muons are denoted by μ− and antimuons by μ+. Muons were previously called mu mesons, but are not classified as mesons by modern particle physicists (see History), and that name is no longer used by the physics community.

    Muons have a mass of 105.7 MeV/c2, which is about 200 times that of the electron. Due to their greater mass, muons are not as sharply accelerated when they encounter electromagnetic fields, and do not emit as much bremsstrahlung (deceleration radiation). This allows muons of a given energy to penetrate far more deeply into matter than electrons, since the deceleration of electrons and muons is primarily due to energy loss by the bremsstrahlung mechanism. As an example, so-called "secondary muons", generated by cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere, can penetrate to the Earth's surface, and even into deep mines.

    Because muons have a very large mass and energy compared with the decay energy of radioactivity, they are never produced by radioactive decay. They are, however, produced in copious amounts in high-energy interactions in normal matter, in certain particle accelerator experiments with hadrons, or naturally in cosmic ray interactions with matter. These interactions usually produce pi mesons initially, which most often decay to muons.

    As with the case of the other charged leptons, the muon has an associated muon neutrino, denoted by ν
    μ, which is not the same particle as the electron neutrino, and does not participate in the same nuclear reactions.
    This is like a disease that sucks mass away from the rest of the atom, and is like a small black hole - could normal quasars be big muons?

    Quote Originally Posted by http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tau_lepton
    Tau (τ) leptons (aka tauons, tau particle) are one of the very small elementary particles. This means that they are believed to be so small that they can not be divided any more. Tau leptons can be thought of as very heavy electrons, as they are both leptons. This is because they have about 3,500 times as much mass as electrons, and about 17 times as much mass as muons. Since they only live for 2.9x10–13 seconds, they do not have a significant role in the regular world. However, they are very important in the decay of subatomic matter.

    Like the other two basic leptons, tauons have a neutrino named after them (the tau neutrino).

    Tau have a charge of -1, and can be written as τ–. Since antimatter has the opposite of charge of regular matter, anti-tauons have a charge of +1, and can be written as τ+. Tauons themselves are unstable, and can decay. Also, τ+ and τ– can annihilate each other in a form of decay. When a single tauon decays, it is the only lepton that can decay into hadrons (things made of quarks). τ+ and τ– can be formed by an electron-positron (antielectron) pair combining. The two tauons then decay into an electron or a positron, a muon or an antimuon, and four of the various neutrinos. However, a single tauon decays differently than a tauon and an antitauon.

    A τ– will quickly decay into a tau neutrino and a W boson. The W boson will exist for 3x10–25 seconds, before it decays into an electron or an electron antineutrino, a muon or a muon antineutrino, and a down quark or an up antiquark.
    As with the other leptons, these produce activity by sucking the substance from other things. this brings things closer together, like electron bonding.
    !! Going to my destruction !!

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    Diamond Member HR Solutions's Avatar
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    Copy paste copy paste copy paste ................... serious !!! And then from wikepedia ??? If anyone reads that shit ......
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    Bronze Member Brett Nortje's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by HR Solutions View Post
    Copy paste copy paste copy paste ................... serious !!! And then from wikepedia ??? If anyone reads that shit ......
    Okay, well, that was a bad example, but the 'solutions' are good, yes?
    !! Going to my destruction !!

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